Creator Mundi showcases news from the religious world.
“He who does Christ’s work, must stay with Christ always.”
One of the greatest Christian artists is Giovanni Fiesole, better known to the world as Blessed Fra Angelico, the “Angelic Brother.” Fra Angelico is a patron saint for artists. His style of painting beautifully bridges the iconographic and gothic traditions. Giorgio Vasari, author of “Lives of the Artists,” referred to Angelico as a “rare and perfect talent.”
Very little of his writings have survived the centuries but one phrase still resonates, more than 400 years after his death. “He who does Christ’s work, must stay with Christ always.”
Saint Paul, in his letter to the Galatians said something similar. “I live; yet now, it is not I, but truly Christ, who lives in me. And though I live now in the flesh, I live in the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and who delivered himself for me.” Galatians 2:20
What does it mean when Paul tells us it is no longer he who lives but Christ who lives in him? What does it mean to stay with Christ always?
In Paul’s time it was believed that the only way to have a right relationship with God was to follow the law, the Ten Commandments and all the thousands of rules that derive from them.
But Paul rejected this idea and preached that the only road to justification, to having that right relationship with God, is through faith in Jesus Christ.
It is not enough to simply “follow the rules” and stay out of trouble. If that is all we do then we are trying to achieve heaven by our own merits. God wants more from us than that.
God invites us into a relationship of friends and family, a relationship of love. This type of relationship is a living, dynamic one. To love Christ and to want to be near Him is to be crucified with Him.
It means standing up for the Truth even when it is unpopular. It means finding time to pray. It means that we stay faithful to the teachings of Jesus. And it means that when we fail, we humbly confess our sins as we would apologize to a friend we have hurt, so that that relationship can be restored.
It means that we must reflect Christ to the whole world, so that when people look at us they do not see us, they see Christ.
For the Artist this means we (Read More)
Try it for 30 days, and if you don’t like it, we’ll return you misery with interest!
Here’s a quick and simple exercise I have been doing daily for nearly 30 years and it has brought such spectacularly positive results in my life that have accumulated steadily and incrementally ever since I started.
Every day, I jot down on a scrap of paper a ‘gratitude list’.
The gratitude list is a list of good and beautiful things that have been given to me today for which I offer thanks to God. I put down the ‘essentials’ of life that are true for today, for example, I am alive, I have a bed to sleep in today, I have somewhere to live, food for today, clothes to wear and so on. I then put down all the little events specific to that day that go beyond what is necessary for life, you might call these ‘luxuries’, for example, sunshine on this January day (sorry New Hampshire), a kind word here, the relationships with others that I have and so on.
Actually writing the list is important – it forces me to crystallize the thought in my mind that much more concretely and makes the exercise more powerful. So nice thoughts in the shower, or on my morning walk don’t count. It’s not that there’s anything wrong with that but it doesn’t work as well for this exercise. I reach for pen and paper.
Also, I don’t wait to feel grateful before I put them down – I write down what I ought to feel grateful for! The idea is that this exercise changes how we feel, and we grow in gratitude over time even if we don’t start out that way. So right now I am grateful for a huge cup of steaming coffee! Fantastic!
Then I go further, I write down the bad things happening in my day and thank God for those too.
It may sound perverse, but this is powerful for turning around my attitude to what is happening to me. I believe that all that is good comes from God and that once we hand ourselves over to his protection and care he will look after us. While it is undeniable that there is evil and suffering in the world, these things to do not come from God, for a God that is all good cannot be the creator of something bad. Rather, (Read More)
“Style and content are both critical if we are to portray the human form with dignity. It’s not just what we paint, but how we paint it.”
“The Master of Sacred Arts program of www.Pontifex.University discusses in great depth how this consideration of the way in which we paint the human figure has influenced profoundly all the great Christian styles of art.”
Here is the latest video presentation, by Bill Donaghy of the Theology of the Body Institute in Philadelphia, recorded just after the Easter Triduum last year. He discusses Christ in the Realm of the Dead, painted between 1891-94 painted by the Danish artist Joakim Skovgaard (1856-1933).
I did not know anything about this artist until I saw Bill’s talk. Although not so obviously drawing on the Greek ideal, his style does remind me, in many ways, of William Blake. The dramatic touch in composition, the coloration look similar. And just like Blake he does not conform to the academic styles that dominated in the period that he painted.
While Christian artists are not bound to follow traditional styles (although I would argue they would need good reasons to depart from them) they must consider a style that has the right balance of naturalism and idealization. This is especially important when portraying the human form nude. Style and content are both critical if we are to portray the human form with dignity! It’s not just what we paint, but how we paint it.This artist has created a work of great power without being prurient. He chooses poses that avoid revealing private parts – this is especially appropriate if portraying fallen man, for they are meant to be private in him more than in any other anthropological state. That is why we wear clothes – or we ought to – in most situations!
The drama of this moment which indicates, as Bill tells us in his commentary, ‘where Adam fails Christ succeeds’.
The Master of Sacred Arts program of www.Pontifex.University discusses in great depth how this consideration of the way in which we paint the human figure has influenced profoundly all the great Christian styles of art.
Pontifex University is an online university offering a Master’s Degree in Sacred Arts. For more information visit the website at www.pontifex.university
Mother Theresa of Calcutta used to say that “the money in your pocket is not yours, it belongs to God.” The same is true of all the gifts you have received.
By Deacon Lawrence Klimecki; this article originally appeared at www.DeaconLawrence.org
What is the purpose of artistic talent?
I am sure most, if not all of us, are familiar with the opening of a movie produced by MGM Studios. It depicts a roaring lion surrounded by the words “Ars Gratia Artis.” This is the Latin translation of the phrase “art for art’s sake.”
“Art for Art’s Sake” is a phrase coined about 200 years ago to express a philosophy that the true value of art lies in the art itself; that art should be divorced from any instructive, moral, or useful function. In other words, “true art” serves only itself.
But for the thousands of years prior to the early 19th century, art served a purpose, it served the community. For the Christian artist, art was, and still is, a way to teach, promote Christian morals and values, and serve the common good. And because we share in God’s creative force as sub-creators, we find an endless number of ways to accomplish that.
Mother Theresa of Calcutta used to say that “the money in your pocket is not yours, it belongs to God.” The same is true of all the gifts you have received. They have been given to you by the Holy Spirit to bring the world back to God.
Saint Luke’s account of the multiplication of the loaves and fish gives us an interesting example. It is not difficult to understand the apostle’s point of view. They brought barely enough food for themselves, let alone the thousands who came to hear the Lord. But rather than send them away Jesus told the apostles to feed the multitude from their own small stores. We can easily imagine some reluctance to give up what little they have. But because it is the Lord who asks they do so. And Jesus takes what they have, multiplies it, and not only is there enough to feed the thousands but there is enough left over to fill twelve baskets, one for each of the twelve apostles.
God asks us to return to Him what He has given us, in order that He may give us even more.
What are your talents and how are you using them?
There is a saying (Read More)
Some of you will be aware of this program already, but not everyone!. The Master 0f Sacred Arts program at www.Pontifex.University was introduced last year (and we even have the first people about to graduate!). But I wanted to let you know that we now pretty much have all the courses up there created by a great faculty. So this is a range of classes that are rooted in the Catholic intellectual tradition as well as practical classes in painting, sculpture and sacred geometry (as part of the Mathematics of Beauty course).
The MSA offers a formation in beauty for artists, patrons of the arts and anyone who wants to contribute creatively to the transformation of the culture. It is a chance to travel on the Way of Beauty in a way never before available.
Thank you to all at Pontifex for the creation of this unique program, it is such a pleasure for me to see this available. It is the result of over 20 years’ work and study on my part and many hundreds of years of work if you include the unique contributions of our wonderful faculty.
Every course is unique to the Master of Sacred Arts. You can take the whole program or individual courses; audit or for credit to compliment what you already know or feel you can teach yourself.
Abel, the son of Adam is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass as Abel the Just. It hasn’t been easy to confirm, but my best information is that his feast day is January 2nd for the Extraordinary Form Calendar and I was just informed (H/T Sequoia S) that it is December 24 for the Ordinary Form calendar. His story is in the book of Genesis. You may remember his offering, a sacrificial lamb, was appropriate, which that of his brother Cain was deficient. When Cain’s offering was rejected, Cain murdered Able out of jealousy.
He is a hugely important figure liturgically in that his story is one that helps to establish the pattern of religious life for us, with worship and sacrifice at its heart. This is true, broadly speaking for the patriarchs, and specifically, he is often associated in this regard with Melchizedek and Abraham. I have covered both of these figures in previous postings and any who have read those will remember the mosaic from Ravenna which has the three together.
This importance is made real, by the continued references to him in the Old Testament, as well as in the Mass, of course. Here is an excerpt from the Catholic Encyclopedia:
In the New Testament Abel is often mentioned. His pastoral life, his sacrifice, his holiness, his tragic death made him a striking type of Our Divine Saviour. His just works are referred to in 1 John 3:12; he is canonized by Christ himself (Matthew 23:34-35) as the first of the long line of prophets martyred for justice’ sake. He prophesied not by word, but by his sacrifice, of which he knew by revelation the typical meaning (Vigouroux); and also by his death (City of God XV.18). In Hebrews 12:24, his death is mentioned, and the contrast between his blood and that of Christ is shown. The latter calls not for vengeance, but for mercy and pardon. Abel, though dead, speaketh (Hebrews 11:4), Deo per merita, hominibus per exemplum (Piconio), i.e. to God by his merits, to men by his example.
The Ghent Altarpiece portrays this so beautifully, by connecting the two images of Abel and Cain with the fallen Adam and Eve (who have deep shadows associated with their images and who are naked, but ashamed of their nudity).
Here is an early gothic illumination, which again puts to the two important parts of the ‘Kayn’ and Abel biblical narrative (Read More)
I am wondering if the experiences of choir directors out there confirm an observation of mine about the power of a drone – that is a continuously sung note alongside the melody – to help engage people with sacred music in the right way? I have seen the drone used in Gregorian chant and Byzantine chant to powerful effect. I suggest that this is something that could be used more, especially in modern churches which are not designed with an acoustic that produces a harmonic resonance naturally. In my opinion, chant requires that faint suggestion of harmony that such a resonance lends to it, as one might hear in a gothic abbey for example, in order to have full effect as sacred music (I will explain my reasons for saying this later).
Here are my thoughts as to why this might be. One of the attributes of beauty, famously listed by St Thomas, is due proportion. When something has due proportion, each part of an object must be in right relation to each other in a way that is appropriate to the purpose of the whole. What constitutes due proportion in any particular situation is to a degree a matter of judgment, but there are geometric and arithmetical guidelines that can inform that judgment.
Beauty it seems is ordered by the number three. Going all the way back to pre-Christian classical culture, it was noticed that in the human response to things in combination – that is, in relation to each other – a minimum of three things were needed to constitute some sense of completeness in the arrangement. If there are just two in combination there can still be beautiful combinations, but there is inherent within it a sense that it is incomplete.
This is most easily explained in the natural response of most people to the combinations of notes in music. When two notes are placed in a relationship to each other, it is called an interval, and when it is pleasing it is described as ‘consonant’ meaning literally, ‘sounding together’. However, it was also noticed that when people hear a harmonious interval, it still seems to lack something. If you ask the music theorist why this is, they will tell you its because an interval could be the basis of either a major or a minor chord, and you don’t know which until the third note is supplied. When (Read More)
A video commentary by Bill Donaghy of the Theology of the Body Institute.
Here is the third in the series of 12 short videos on art by Bill Donaghy of the Theology of the Body Institute in Philadelphia. I encourage all to investigate the courses they offer, by the way, which are available through their website.
Once again there are great insights here. Here is one little nugget to tempt you with, if you will forgive the pun, is the play on the word ‘adoration’. Bill explains how this word is derived from the Latin, ad-oratio, that is ‘to the mouth’. To adore is to love intimately – mouth-to-mouth contact – as the imagery of the root portrays. As we see in this painting, the destruction of the harmony between God and man is brought about by a perversion of this, in which Blake show a mouth-to-mouth temptation by the serpent. I suggest that the restoration of this harmony, brought about by Christ, is a spiritual mouth-to-mouth resuscitation!
Again this is exquisitely rendered in a neo-classical form by Blake.
Temptation And Fall
I offer the following as a complement to your celebrations of the Nativity of Our Lord, not as a replacement! Like someone whose birthday is on Christmas Day, St Anastasia is not often commemorated. A separate Mass for her can be said on December 25th, but given the unlikelihood of this happening, I suggest that perhaps in order to revive her momory, as one of the saints of the Roman Canon, we could find a way of adding a veneration to her without distracting from the Nativity – perhaps though the insertion of her name at the prayers of the day in the Mass or the Divine Office, or through a veneration of her icon in the processions in such a way that it supports, rather than distracts from the main focus of the day, the Nativity of the Lord.
Perhaps we could take a lead from the Eastern Church which always commemorates the saints of the day even in Sunday liturgy by the singing of the multiple troparia (one-verse hymns) of the day at the appropriate juncture.
Not much is know about the saint, except that she was a Roman by birth who was martyred at Sirmium in modern-day Serbia during the persecution of the Emporer Diocletian. You can read about her in New Advent here.
This Western depiction of her shows her with the idealized features of a Greek goddess as would have been the norm in the neo-classical art of, for example, the High Renaissance or of the early 19th century.
Eastern icons of her show her with a bottle as ‘deliver from potion’ symbolising the power of her prayers to cure the sick.
This is one of a series of articles written to highlight the great feasts and the saints of the Roman Canon. All are connected to a single opening essay, in which I set out principles by which we might create a canon of art for Roman Rite churches, and a schema that would guide the placement of such images in a church. (Read it here.) In these, I plan to cover the key elements of images of the Saints of the Roman Canon – Eucharistic Prayer I – and the major feasts of the year. I have created the tag Canon of Art for Roman Rite to group these together, should any be interested in seeing these articles as they accumulate. For the fullest presentation (Read More)
A Survey of the Philosophy of the Good, the True and the Beautiful. An Online Course taught by Dr Carrie Gress for Pontifex University
When I first decided, many years ago now, to become an artist, I wanted to know how to create beautiful art. Given this goal, it seemed obvious, along with all the other aspects of my formation, that I should start reading about beauty itself.
However, to my surprise, I found very little to help me from Catholic writers. Books on aesthetics talked at length about the nature of beauty – and some seemed true (although many didn’t) but barely anyone seemed to offer anything that was of practical use to an artist.
Everyone told me to read Jacques Maritain. I’m probably going to commit a heresy that will offend Thomists here, but I wasn’t at all convinced by him either. As I read through Art and Scholasticism, which was admittedly, full of complex reasoning about the nature of beauty, I still wanted to ask the question: and how do I use all of this to help me judge what is beautiful? I am an artist, how is all this going help me to decide whether or not to direct the brush to the left or to the right? But there was very little there to help me.
Finally, right at the end of the book, he told us that the embodiment of all that he had been describing was in the paintings of Braques and Picasso. You have to be joking, I thought. I knew that their work was designed so as to promote an anti-Christian worldview, yet he seemed to be unaware of this. After pages and pages of proofs justifying the objectivity of beauty, in the end, even for Maritain it came down to an arbitrary application of personal taste to tell us that beauty is what he happens to like. Why not just forget the first 300 pages, I thought, and tell us that the answers to what is beautiful, is that it is what clever philosophers say it is? This principle of elitism was no different from any university in the country, where the intellectuals use wordy arguments to tell you what they like is good and you’re a Philistine if you think differently.
Although many Church Fathers had written about beauty, they didn’t treat the subject separately and so it was difficult to know where (Read More)
Simple and Practical Ways to Promote and Preserve Spiritual Joy, Inspired by St Paul
There is a series of wonderful meditations on the Claritas blog at the moment by priests from the Argentian order, the Institute of the Incarnate Word. I wanted to highlight this, and also share with you here third in the series of meditations for this third week of Advent, based upon the readings from last Sunday. It is by Father Nicholas Grace who is in Cowdenbeath in Scotland. It is so refreshing to hear a priest actually confirming something that I have long believed, that happiness is a choice we can make, provided know how to make the choice. This is simple but profound advice!
We have a wonderful topic this 3rd Sunday of Advent because the readings the Church presents give us the opportunity to speak about that most desirable Catholic disposition of soul, that is, Spiritual joy.
The readings offer plenty of material for speaking about spiritual joy. The spiritual joy of the glad tidings that Isaiah was asked to bring to the poor or the spiritual Joy expressed in the Psalm we heard. The Psalm which was an echo of Our Lady’s Magnificat, an expression of spiritual Joy in its purest form.
However, we will focus instead on the 2nd reading from the letter of St. Paul where we are encouraged to rejoice always, to rejoice in God.
I would like to focus on three of the means Paul offers to cultivate and maintain spiritual joy. I will mention three ways to pray without ceasing, and three ways to avoid quenching the spirit. Finally, both of these means will be summarized in Paul’s admonition to retain what is good and refrain from what is evil.
First: Paul urges, pray constantly. How is this possible? It is possible in three ways.
1st: He constantly prays who does not neglect the appointed time for prayer. This begs the question, do I have an appointed time for prayer? If not, why not?
2nd: Always cultivate good desires in the heart. “Lord, you hear the desire of the meek”.
We pray for the good, we desire the good and we do the good. Prayer is always present in the good things we do. For this reason, the wise man says, “He does not cease praying who does not cease doing good.”
Therefore, to constantly cultivate good desires in the heart, is to constantly cultivate prayer.
3rd (Read More)
I was delighted to receive notice of the completion of a major commission by Thomas Marsh.
It is of the Holy Spouses, Patrons of the Unborn and is located at the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Bakersfield, CA.
I love the restrained use of color as applied to the bronze. Also, note that the faces are not portraits of a model, but rather they are idealized, taking inspiration from the Greek ideal, that was used by High Renaissance and Baroque masters. This is something that is so important in sacred art, yet is not understood by so many artists who work in naturalistic styles. I explain the reasons why idealization is important in sacred art in an earlier blog post here.
Beautiful art is as important to the creation of a culture of life as the noble political battles fought by those in the Right to Life movement, I suggest!
Below is a detail of the original clay model that the cast was based on:
Thomas has been an advisor to me in the creation of the Masters of Sacred Arts program at www.Pontifex.University, which offers the all-round formation, the Catholic inculturation that would tell an artist how to direct his brush or chisel, and a patron which artists to commission!
He is also the teacher of Deborah Samia who has created one of the two online studio classes required for the MSA program, an Introduction to Sculpting the Figure.
Anyone who wants to learn to draw and paint in the naturalistic style should consider classes at the atelier of Catholic master artist Anthony Visco. The perfect combination would be to learn your practical artistic skills with Anthony at his Atelier for Sacred Arts and take the Master of Sacred Arts with www.Pontifex.University in order to have the all-round formation and Catholic inculturation that will help direct your brush…and chisel…and crayon!
A video commentary by Bill Donaghy of the Theology of the Body Institute, Here is the second in the series of 12 short videos on art by Bill Donaghy of the Theology of the Body Institute in Philadelphia.
This week and next he discusses two paintings by William Blake the poet and artist. In this case, he discusses illustrations to Milton’s Paradise Lost. First is Satan Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve.
At first glance, the art of Blake may seem a world apart from the grand fresco of Adam and God in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo. However, both draw on the ancient Greek ideal of the human form for inspiration. This can be seen if you compare the paintings in each case with any Venus or Hermes (as below)
This is appropriate to the subject matter and consistent with the ideas of John Paul II because he stated that in his view the Greek ideal might be the starting point for the art of the Theology of the Body.
Here is the video:
It was recorded in April last year and so the course that Bill refers to is past, but I would encourage people to look for courses in the coming year. His approach to art and beauty is fully in harmony with that of Pontifex University and my own Way of Beauty book.
St Lucy is a 3rd-century saint, a virgin martyr who was venerated from the moment of her death and whose feast is celebrated on December 13th in both East and West. An account of her life can be found here. As with all worthy images intended for worship, we see in this portrayal of her (by the great 18th century Venetian, Tiepolo) we see an account of her story and the characteristics that identify her uniquely. So we see her receiving communion just at the moment of death caused by being stabbed in the throat. As the instrument of her death, the dagger is placed bottom right in the composition, along with her eyes on a plate. This latter symbol is most commonly associated with her, although it is developed relatively late, in the middle ages, linked to her name which is derived from the Latin word for light. Other attributes we will see are a palm branch – which is appropriate to all martyrs – as seen in this famous Renaissance period painting by Francesco de la Cossa And, people struggling to move her. The consul Paschasius ordered that she be removed to a brothel and abused until she died. However, teams of men tried but failed to move her. We see this in the painting below in this 15th-century depiction. Teams of oxen are being used. A tradition iconographic image has the saint holding a cross as a sign of martyrdom as in the beautiful fresco: I finish with Caravaggio and his burial of St Lucy. This is a late painting done when he was in exile, so to speak, from Rome and living in Sicily, the home of St Lucy. It is an altarpiece and in my opinion, one of the most brilliant paintings he has done. I do not know if the stylistic development is by accident or design, but regardless I like the result. Notice how much more this reflects the developing baroque style than his early work. It is shrouded in more mystery, with disappearing edges, far more numinous monochrome rendering and less colouration than he might have painted in his youth. The composition is brilliant, with the arcs of the arcs of the limbs of the two figures in the foreground creating a mandorla, which frames the figure of St Lucy. This is one of a (Read More)
In the first of a series that will run for the next few weeks, here is a beautiful and simple analysis of this scene from the fresco by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel in Rome. It is presented by Bill Donaghy of the Theology of the Body Institute in Philadelphia. The Institute offers a series of intensive classes for a certificate on the writings of St John Paul II, which I recommend wholeheartedly. They focus especially on their relevance to the culture and the New Evangelization, as well as marriage and the family. In this five-minute presentation, we see all three come together!
John Paul II was a great admirer of Michelangelo and his style. He suggested that idealized naturalism, which draws on the ancient Greek ideal, might be a way to represent mankind ‘naked without shame’.
And How the Sacred Art Reveals It
Have a look at this ancient wall painting of the prophet Daniel’s companions in the fiery furnace. It is from the Roman catacombs and is one of the images that is included in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
Scripture tells us of the fate of Daniel’s three friends (Daniel 3: 49, Knox translation). It says that an ‘angel of the Lord had gone down into the furnace with Azarias and his companions and drove the flames away from it, making a wind blow in the heart of the furnace, like the wind that brings the dew. So that these three were untouched, and the fire brought them no discomfort. Whereupon all of them, as with one mouth, began to give praise and glory and blessing to God, there in the furnace.’ Afterwards, the king who had thrown the youths into the fire, Nebuchnudnezah said he saw four figures, and the fourth was ‘as it had been a son of God’ (v92).
I recently examined this passage in scripture because the song that the three subsequently sang is known as the Canticle of Daniel and is sung on Feast days at Lauds. I was looking at the background to this and considering why it is sung in the liturgy.
My understanding is that in the interpretation of the Church Fathers, the reference to the wind and the dew in the scriptural account has been connected to the Creation story in which the Spirit of God was over the water, and then to the baptism of Christ in which the Holy Spirit comes down and the sacrament of baptism is initiated. Baptism is, through water, the instrument of the death of the old self spiritually so that we can be resurrected, also spiritually, in Confirmation or Chrismation by the action of the Holy Spirit.
There is a similar connection to the passages describing the crossing of the Red Sea and the crossing of the Jordan by Joshua, in which the water and wind are connected. Wind is the action of the Spirit, as is fire (as at Pentecost which the Church Fathers also connected to the burning bush).
These common themes are the reason why traditionally in baptistries we would see portrayals of all these scenes, as described here.
So who is the fourth figure?
He can be represented simply as ‘an angel of the Lord’, as in this contemporary (Read More)
How about this from Durham Cathedral – St Cuthbert in the style of the School of St Albans? It is in the Galilee Chapel at the Romanesque cathedral in northern England. I suggest that this approach of simple line drawings describing form, and simple coloration is one that artists of today could adopt. If they do so, a wonderful new 21st-century gothic style can emerge for the greater glory of God and the Church! If done’ properly this would be simultaneously contemporary and traditional in a way that speaks powerfully of the Faith.
This shows that the miniature illuminations of Matthew Paris, which www.Pontifex.University promotes, can work well on a grand scale on walls too. Here is a miniature by Matthew Paris, from the 13th century.
I say on this pilgrimage of life, let’s set the bow of the barque headed firmly towards heaven, with tradition at the tiller!
Artists! Learn to paint in the style of the School of St Albans in the www.Pontifex University. My course, A Study of Artistic Method for Patrons and Artists not only teaches you how to paint in egg tempera, but it explains the principles by which you can make any style of art you like your own; and it so happens that the style I focus on in the class to illustrate is the School of St Albans style, as seen in the Galilee Chapel of Durham Cathedral!
Here are some more photos of Durham Cathedral to give you some context.
The Norman nave of Durham Cathedral, a World Heritage Site, Durham, County Durham, England, UK.
Today is the Feast of St Andrew who, as an Apostle, is mentioned in the Roman Canon of the Mass.
Before he was called to follow Christ he was a follower of John the Baptist and like him, he is depicted with unkempt hair.
Here are two more icons that caught my eye. The second of the two was painted by Sr Petra Clare and it hangs in Pluscarden Abbey in Scotland. I remember seeing it many times when I visited.
The cross upon which he was martyred, during the persecution of Nero, is a characteristic X shape. As someone from the British Isles, I am well aware of this because he is the patron saint of Scotland and the Scottish flag depicts it symbolically. This was incorporated into the Union Jack sometime after the formal union of the two countries in the 18th century.
The martyrdom itself is depicted in Western portrayals of the saint. For example here is one by Rubens in characteristically dramatic style. In accordance with tradition he is shown bound, not nailed, to the cross:
Andrew was the brother of St Peter and the portrayal of the calling of the two as fishermen who will become ‘fishers of men’ is another common scene in Western portrayals.
Here is Duccio’s painting…
…an early mosaic from Ravenna (note how Christ is beardless)…
I do not know who the figure in the toga is on the right. Below is a baroque painting of the same scene.
FIT58808 The Calling of St. Peter and St. Andrew, c.1626-30 (oil on canvas) by Cortona, Pietro da (Berrettini) (1596-1669); 28.7×57.4 cm; Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, UK; Italian, out of copyright
This is one of a series of articles written to highlight the great feasts and the saints of the Roman Canon. All are connected to a single opening essay, in which I set out principles by which we might create a canon of art for Roman Rite churches, and a schema that would guide the placement of such images in a church. (Read it here.) In these, I plan to cover the key elements of images of the Saints of the Roman Canon – Eucharistic Prayer I – and the major feasts of the year. I have created the tag Canon of Art for Roman Rite to group these together, should any be interested in seeing these articles as they accumulate. For the fullest presentation of (Read More)